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Prior to application of GIS only the few possessed art of generalization and the full analysis of geographical information for the purpose of reasonable adoption of the optimum decisions based on modern approaches and means.

This possibly most GIS important component. Data on spatial situation (the geographical are given and the related tabular data can be collected and be prepared by the user, or be got at suppliers on commercial or other basis. In process of management of GIS of spatial data integrates spatial data with other types and data sources, and also can use DBMS applied by many organizations to ordering and support of the data which are available at their order

Broad application of the GIS technology is impossible without people who work with software products and develop plans of their use at the solution of real tasks. Can be users of GIS as the technical specialists developing and supporting system, and ordinary employees (end users) to whom GIS helps to solve the current everyday affairs and problems.

The raster model is optimum for work with continuous properties. The raster image represents a set of values for separate elementary components (cells), it is similar to the scanned card or the picture. Both models have the advantages and shortcomings.

Computers give not only bigger convenience of performance of known operations with documents, they are the carrier of the new direction of human activity - information technologies, and modern society is founded substantially on them.

Systems of desktop mapping use cartographical representation for the organization of interaction of the user with data. In such systems everything is based on maps, the card is a database. The majority of systems of desktop mapping has limited opportunities of a data control, the spatial analysis and control. The corresponding packages work at desktop computers - PC, Macintosh and the younger UNIX models of workstations.

GIS helps to reduce time of receiving replies to the requests of clients; to reveal territories suitable for the demanded actions; to reveal interrelations between various parameters (for example, soils, climate and productivity of agricultural cultures);

Any geographical information contains data on spatial situation, whether it be a binding to geographical or other coordinates, or references to the address, the postal index, the constituency or district of population census, the identifier of the land or wood lot, the name of the road or a kilometer column on the highway, etc.

Creation of maps and the geographical analysis are not something absolutely new. However the GIS technology provides new, more corresponding to the present, more effective, convenient and fast approach to the analysis of problems and the solution of the tasks facing mankind in general, and the concrete organization or group of people, in particular. It automates procedure of the analysis and forecast.

PO GIS contains the functions and tools necessary for storage, the analysis and visualization of geographical (spatial) information. Key components of software products are: tools for input and operating by geographical information; control system of a database (DBMS or SUB; instruments of support of spatial inquiries, analysis and visualization (display); the graphic user interface (GUI or GIP) for easy access to tools and functions.

GIS stores information on the real world in the form of a set of thematic layers which are integrated on the basis of a geographical position. This idle time, but very flexible approach proved the value at the solution of various real tasks: for tracking of movement of vehicles and materials, detailed display of a real situation and the planned actions, modeling of global circulation of the atmosphere.

Geographical information system (geographic information system, GIS), GIS - the information system providing collecting, storage, processing, access, display and distribution of spatial and coordinate these spatial data).

Only application of GIS in preparation and listing of cards and, maybe, in processing aero - and space pictures is at first sight rather obvious. The real range of applications of GIS are much wider and to estimate it, we should look at use of computers in general, then the place of GIS will be represented much more clearly.